Apple OS X Lion is available through the App Store since 20 th July 2011. With a download of about 4 Gig it does make sense to get hold of an installation DVD for Lion.

Here is how you can create one:

  • Download OS X Lion through the App Store.
  • Once the download is finished do not immediately install it. (If you already done so you can re-download the “Install Mac OS X Lion.app”  by holding the option key (alt) and clicking on the purchased Lion Icon under Purchased). [1]
  • In your Application folder and or Dock you will see the “Install Mac OS X Lion” application.
  • Right Click on the Lion symbol -> Options -> Show in Finder.
  • Burn the DVD (no Dual Layer required) of the image “InstallESD.dmg” which is under SharedSupport.
  • The DVD allows you to:

* Restore From Time Machine Backup – You have a backup of your system that you want to restore.

* Reinstall Mac OS X – Set up and Install a new copy of Lion.

* Get Help Online – Browse the Apple Support website to find help for your Mac.

* Disk Utility – Repair or erase a disk using Disk Utility.

Utilities allow you to manage:

* Firmware Password Utility

* Network Utility

* Terminal

Please Note possible installation problems:

Update 27072011: If you experienced problems during Lion installation and did erase your install media you might get the error “There was a problem installing Mac OS X”. This is caused by parts of the broken installation are kept in the parameter random access memory (PRAM) and nonvolatile RAM (NVRAM). To reset Mac PRAM, see: http://support.apple.com/kb/ht1379

[ 1 ] Apple Support Communities:

https://discussions.apple.com/thread/3191518?start=0&tstart=0

[ 2 ] Erasing Mac Parameter random access memory (PRAM)

http://support.apple.com/kb/ht1379

During the past few months rumors [1] about Apples final release date for OS X 10.7, aka Lion [2] have been going on. One of the latest estimation of arrivals was referring to July 14 th 2011. Time to get your gear together so once the OS is available you can move on as painless as possible.  Normally you would not care much about preparation but recent upgrades in combination with PGP’s whole Disk encryption (WDE) [3], now owned by Symantec, scared Apple’s Pantherinae family a hell out of the Master Boot Record (MBR) [4]. People also looking forward to use Lion’s new built in WDE solution but to get there they have to migrate  somehow without pitfalling into the MBR chopping down.

This migration might become challenging for enterprise deployments when people are using different versions of PGP Desktop full disk encryption (WDE). Key requirements for a successful update/migration consist of, which solution is actually the most secure one (confidentiality), the best process (manageability) in conjunction with the amount of time (achievability) spent.

Facts to be considered for discussing possible solutions:

  • Mac OS X Lion 10.7 pre- requires an up to date OS X Snow Leopard [5] 10.6.8:

Best recommendation for OS X updates in general is to keep the system most up to date before applying a newer version. Before applying OS X 10.7  you are also advised to update to OS X 10.6.8. From the changelog [6] of OS X 10.6.8 “Enhancements to the Mac App Store to get your Mac ready to upgrade to Mac OS X Lion.”

  • OS X 10.7 is yet only announced to be available through the app-store:

Snow Leopard’s first mayor release could be upgraded in iterations through the built in update function or by a download link from a Apple support page. The major release was introduced by providing an Original retail DVD. However OS X Lion will only be available as a download from the Mac App Store. Therefore older versions of OS X which doesn’t support the Mac App Store have first to be upgraded to Mac OS X Snow Leopard 10.6.8.
Update 22/07/2011: See https://marienfeldt.wordpress.com/2011/07/22/backup-os-x-10-7-lion-to-dvd/ for how to create a Lion DVD.

  • A change of the encryption solution demands for the removal of the former  WDE installation:

Removing WDE solutions should consist of first decrypting the encrypted media storage and then secondly fully uninstall the WDE application. This have to be done in exact order otherwise you will end up with an encrypted media which you can’t access any longer. It is also important to make sure the actual application is cleanly removed from your system and no leftovers are available. Having parts of the application left can conflict with the new solution, especially if the conflict appears in your Master Boot Record (MBR) .

  • Removing PGP Desktop’s encryption can be managed by running the decryption in the background but depending on the storage media size it can be very time consuming and weakens data confidentiality throughout the decryption process:

As you can run the decryption for PGP Desktop WDE in the background, the time it takes to get the job done really depends on what other system processes are running in parallel. The storage size of the hard drive is obviously heavily influencing the amount of time spent. Latest MacBook Pro Standard Hard disk 320 GB decryption will take between 8 and 12 hours depending on your run environment. During the decryption process the system weakens the data security in respect of how much of the storage media is still encrypted and therefore protected. Until the decryption is finished and the new WDE encryption is applied with full disk encryption in place the system is not secured any longer.

  • Compatibility between OS X and PGP Desktop WDE :

Not only once but several times problems have been reported by PGP Desktop users on various different OS X platforms. Some of the users could recover their systems some been actually forced into a rebuilt. Sadly this recently happened again with the rollout of OS 10.6.8 with some variants of PGP Desktops lower than 10.1.1. Because of the nature of the compatibility issue it’s impossible to predict which version works with what and therefore time consuming tests are necessary. PGP Desktop older than the supported and reportedly successfull working version, should be upgraded before applying the OS X update. e.g. OS X 10.6.8.

  • Deployment testing is necessary to ensure the impact to users is as low as possible and the involved risks are kept to an acceptable minimum:

Although its hard to cover all aspects of tests some of them are actually happened just by accident and helped to improve the strategy for new test scenarios:

 Test Description  Results  Key requirements
OS X 10.6.7 / PGP WDE 10.1.1: Not really a test for an update/migration -  more an attempt to increase hard disk storage size from 320 GB to 1 TB. Decryption of WDE and attempt to remove PGP Desktop Application. Even after decryption and full removal of PGP the hard disk storage size could not be increased. Enabling verbose mode during boot up showed still pgp copyright messages. The MBR had to be repaired to increase disk size successfully. Confidentiality: Not focusing on.
Manageability: The process is not straight forward
Achieveability: PGP has leftovers after removal which could break a OS X Lion update and/or Lion encryption. Factor time was not a criteria.
OS X 10.6.7 / PGP WDE 10.1.1 -> OS X 10.6.8 upgrade : Actual upgrade test. No PGP decryption and no PGP WDE application removed. OS X 10.6.8 could be applied. Ended up with error “Installation failed”. One test unit reported no problems with this test. Confidentiality: No risk.
Manageability: The process is easy to handle.
Achieveability: The installation was reported as failed. Unreliable upgrade path. The applied 10.6.8 update reported as failed, quite likely break the Lion update.
OS X 10.6.7 / PGP WDE 10.1.1 -> OS X 10.6.8 upgrade : Actual upgrade test. PGP decryption and PGP WDE application removed. OS X 10.6.8 could be applied successfully. Confidentiality: Medium Data exposure risk during process.
Manageability: The process is easy to handle.
Achieveability: Possible option but very time consuming.
OS X 10.6.7 / PGP WDE 10.0.2 -> OS X 10.6.8 upgrade: Actual upgrade test. No PGP decryption and no PGP WDE application removed. Renders PGP Desktops EFI/MBR Authentication useless. Confidentiality: Secure full lost of data in the worst case.
Manageability: The process is easy to apply.
Achieveability: The system needs to be repaired. In the worst case full lost of data and OS.
OS X 10.6.7 / PGP WDE 10.1.0 -> OS X 10.6.8 upgrade : Actual upgrade test. No PGP decryption and no PGP WDE application removed. Renders PGP Desktops EFI/MBR Authentication useless. Confidentiality: Secure full lost of data in the worst case.
Manageability: The process is easy to apply.
Achieveability: The system needs to be repaired. In the worst case full lost of data and OS.
OS X 10.6.8 / PGP WDE 10.1.0 -> OS X Lion beta upgrade : Actual upgrade test. PGP decryption and PGP WDE application removed. Successful update to Lion Confidentiality: Medium Data exposure risk during process.
Manageability: The process is easy to apply.
Achieveability: Possible option but very time consuming.

Conclusions:

  • The OS X 10.6.8 update with PGP WDE < version 10.1.1 will break the OS X update. A recovery procedure [7] is available but not confirmed to be working with all variations of PGP WDE.
  • PGP WDE with decrypted data storage and removed application still keeps some leftover. E.g. copyright notes during bootup (verbose mode). There is a risk that Lion’s disk encryption will not work properly.
  • If PGP WDE is in use, the safest way to update to OS X 10.6.8 and Lion beta is by getting rid of PGP WDE
  • Updating to Lion 10.7 and carrying over PGP WDE is non of an option. The risk is far to high that either the migration fails or any future update will create again software conflicts.
  • The risk of data lost during the update should not be underestimated and a backup is highly recommended.
  • People should consider risk management for data confidentiality when they deal with the decryption.

Update requirements apply for all possible solutions:

  • 2GB RAM, Intel processor that is at least a Core 2 duo, i3, i5, i7, or Xeon.
  • Applied OS X 10.6.8 update

Possible update solutions for Lion preparation:

  1. For OS X 10.6.7 with PGP 10.1.1 -> apply 10.6.8 update
  2. For OS X 10.6.7 with PGP < 10.1.1 -> Decrypt WDE and uninstall PGP Desktop, repair MBR using Snow Leopard Live CD, apply 10.6.8 update. Install PGP Desktop and encrypt hard drive.

Possible solutions for Lion update:

  1. For OS X 10.6.8 -> apply Lion upgrade
  2. For OS X 10.6.8 with PGP WDE, decrypt hard disk, uninstall PGP WDE, repair MBR using Snow Leopard Live CD, apply OS X Lion 10.7
  3. Backup User data. Built a OS X 10.6.8 from scratch, update to Lion, if necessary clone it across your enterprise deployment. Apply individually Lions WDE and recover data from (individual) backups.

Migrated to Lion:

  1. Enable Lion’s Full Disk encryption
  2. Do not send the Encryption key to Apple ;-)

Which ever solution you prefer, I strongly recommend always using  backups. Physical security is very important if your Time Machine backup is not setup for solutions like truecrypt. Lion is supposed to allow Time Machine using an encrypted container. We will have to see if this is also supported through the full restore procedure but it sounds promising.

Appendix:

[1] Lion update rumor
http://www.computerworld.com/s/article/9218158/How_to_prep_your_Mac_for_Lion or http://tinyurl.com/3wsvjt3

[2] OS X Lion 10.7:
https://secure.wikimedia.org/wikipedia/en/wiki/Mac_OS_X_Lion or http://tinyurl.com/6jl8akl

[3] Disk Encryption:
https://secure.wikimedia.org/wikipedia/en/wiki/Disk_encryption or http://tinyurl.com/6xte86a

[4] Master Boot Record:
https://secure.wikimedia.org/wikipedia/en/wiki/Master_boot_record or http://tinyurl.com/6x8ntll

[5] OS X 10.6 Snow Leopard:
https://secure.wikimedia.org/wikipedia/en/wiki/Mac_OS_X_Snow_Leopard or http://tinyurl.com/64u7emm

[6] About the OS X 10.6.8 Update
http://support.apple.com/kb/HT4561 or http://tinyurl.com/6lx43wv

[7] PGP Whole Disk Encryption Recovery
https://supportimg.pgp.com/guides/Tech_Note_PGP_WDE_Recovering_Data_Mac_OS_X.pdf or http://tinyurl.com/26bb4jo

Just recently the last two IPv4 /8s [1] have been allocated by IANA, providing the lift off for IPv4 address space exhaustion [2]. While the issue has been well known for years, and many people have been promoting IPv6 [3], only a few companies have migrated their networks and services [4,7]. It is now receiving its long demanded attention.

I am currently working on IPv6 security implementations and would like to feedback about how to migrate IPv4- into dual stacked IPv6 networks, securely. This article starts off with an example of a tunnel broker setup to help people get their first hands-on IPv6 experience. More advanced topics and focusing on various security issues are planned to be published on a part by part base. Stay tuned on IPv6.

IPv6 in IPv4 tunneling:

From Wikipedia (http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Tunnel_broker) “A tunnel broker is a service which provides a network tunnel. These tunnels can provide encapsulated connectivity over existing infrastructure to a new infrastructure.

There are a variety of tunnel brokers, though most commonly the term is used to refer to an IPv6 tunnel broker, as defined in RFC 3053 [5]. These commonly provide IPv6 tunnels to endusers/endsites using either manual, scripted or automatic configuration. In general tunnel brokers offer so called ‘protocol 41′ or proto-41 tunnels. These are tunnels where IPv6 is tunneled directly inside IPv4 by having the protocol field set to ’41′ (IPv6) in the IPv4 packet.”

Basically a IPv6 tunnel broker allows you to connect to and communicate with existing IPv6 networks even if your Service Provider network only supports IPv4. It allows testing for IPv6 deployment where some network node or transit communication is not fully IPv6 enabled:

Subscribing for IPv6 tunnel service with SixXS Tunnelbroker:

Please note that SixXS is just one of several tunnelbrokers available [6]. At the time I came around IPv6 tunneling this was simply one of the most popular ones.

Signup for a – SiXS handle: http://www.sixxs.net/signup/create/

You will receive a confirmation mail with your username, password and tunnel id and further details, e.g. login into the main website with your login details, request a tunnel and wait for tunnel approval.

Tunnel Name My V6 Tunnel
PoP Name gblon02
PoP Location London, United Kingdom (Great Britain) United Kingdom (Great Britain)
PoP IPv4 77.75.104.126
Your Location Peterborough, United Kingdom (Great Britain) United Kingdom (Great Britain)
Your IPv4 AYIYA, currently 80.40.20.10
IPv6 Prefix 2a01:348:6:157::1/64
PoP IPv6 2a01:348:6:157::1
Your IPv6 2a01:348:6:157::2
Created 2008-11-11 15:17:51 CEST 

State AYIYA (automatically enabled on the fly)

This is a sample of user’s authentication data provided::

Username : BMsixxs-SIXXS
Password : TrfGvfda

URL to logon and verify : https://www.sixxs.net/home/

Setup for Windows (XP) example using SixXS Tunnelbroker:

Install the Windows XP IPv6 TCP/IP stack and type into a command line and do a reboot after:

ipv6 install

Install the OpenVPN software bundle with default settings (http://openvpn.se/files/install_packages/openvpn-2.0.9-gui-1.0.3-install.exe).

You do not to run/configure any OpenVpn application, we just need the “tap” driver to get aiccu working. SixXS tab driver from their own site didn’t work for me.
(Note that you need another reboot.)

Download the Windows(XP) Aiccu Gui version from http://www.sixxs.net/archive/sixxs/aiccu/windows/aiccu-current-gui.exe .

Start the Windows(XP) Aiccu Gui version. Type in your username and password Select your tunnel and click enable.

In a Windows command shell you should be now able to ping ipv6.google.com (Note that the firewall might block your icmp echo request).

You can also test your IPv6 connectivity by directing your browser to URL:

C:\Documents and Settings\Administrator>ping6 ipv6.google.com

Pinging ipv6.l.google.com [2001:4860:a003::68]
from 2a01:348:6:157::2 with 32 bytes of data:

Reply from 2001:4860:a003::68: bytes=32 time=104ms
Reply from 2001:4860:a003::68: bytes=32 time=98ms
Reply from 2001:4860:a003::68: bytes=32 time=97ms
Reply from 2001:4860:a003::68: bytes=32 time=97ms

http://ipv6.google.com

Your “ipconfig” ouput looks now similar to:

C:\Documents and Settings\Administrator>ipconfig /all

Windows IP Configuration

Host Name . . . . . . . . . . . . : wawabinbung
Primary Dns Suffix . . . . . .:
Node Type . . . . . . . . . . . . ..: Hybrid
IP Routing Enabled. . . . . . : No
WINS Proxy Enabled. . . . . : No
DNS Suffix Search List. . . ..: dyn.bernd.marienfeldt.de

Ethernet adapter Local Area Connection:

Connection-specific DNS Suffix . : dyn.bernd.marienfeldt.de
Description . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . : VMware Accelerated AMD PCNet Adapter
Physical Address. . . . . . . . . : 00-0C-22-97-97-97
Dhcp Enabled. . . . . . . . . . . : Yes
Autoconfiguration Enabled . . . . : Yes
IP Address. . . . . . . . . . . . : 80.40.20.10
Subnet Mask . . . . . . . . . . . : 255.255.255.0
IP Address. . . . . . . . . . . . : fe80::20c:29ff:feb4:9d97%4
Default Gateway . . . . . . . . . : 80.40.20.1
DHCP Server . . . . . . . . . . . : 80.40.20.2
DNS Servers . . . . . . . . . . . : 80.40.20.2
80.40.20.3
fec0:0:0:ffff::1%2
fec0:0:0:ffff::2%2
fec0:0:0:ffff::3%2
Primary WINS Server . . . . . . . : 80.40.20.2
Lease Obtained. . . . . . . . . . : 16 June 2009 17:23:08
Lease Expires . . . . . . . . . . : 16 June 2009 21:23:08

Ethernet adapter aiccu:

Connection-specific DNS Suffix . :
Description . . . . . . . . . . . : TAP-Win32 Adapter V8
Physical Address. . . . . . . . . : 00-FF-F6-0E-68-C9
Dhcp Enabled. . . . . . . . . . . : Yes
Autoconfiguration Enabled . . . . : Yes
IP Address. . . . . . . . . . . . : 0.0.0.0
Subnet Mask . . . . . . . . . . . : 0.0.0.0
IP Address. . . . . . . . . . . . : 2a01:348:6:157::2
IP Address. . . . . . . . . . . . : fe80::2ff:f6ff:fe0e:68c9%5
Default Gateway . . . . . . . . . : 2a01:348:6:157::1
DHCP Server . . . . . . . . . . . : 255.255.255.255
DNS Servers . . . . . . . . . . . : fec0:0:0:ffff::1%1
fec0:0:0:ffff::2%1
fec0:0:0:ffff::3%1

Tunnel adapter Teredo Tunneling Pseudo-Interface:

Connection-specific DNS Suffix . :
Description . . . . . . . . . . . : Teredo Tunneling Pseudo-Interface
Physical Address. . . . . . . . . : FF-FF-FF-FF-FF-FF-FF-FF
Dhcp Enabled. . . . . . . . . . . : No
IP Address. . . . . . . . . . . . : fe80::ffff:ffff:fffd%6
Default Gateway . . . . . . . . . :
NetBIOS over Tcpip. . . . . . . . : Disabled

Tunnel adapter 6to4 Tunneling Pseudo-Interface:

Connection-specific DNS Suffix . : dyn.bernd.marienfeldt.de
Description . . . . . . . . . . . : 6to4 Tunneling Pseudo-Interface
Physical Address. . . . . . . . . : C3-42-E9-41
Dhcp Enabled. . . . . . . . . . . : No
Default Gateway . . . . . . . . . :
DNS Servers . . . . . . . . . . . : fec0:0:0:ffff::1%2
fec0:0:0:ffff::2%2
fec0:0:0:ffff::3%2
NetBIOS over Tcpip. . . . . . . . : Disabled

Tunnel adapter Automatic Tunneling Pseudo-Interface:

Connection-specific DNS Suffix . : dyn.bernd.marienfeldt.de
Description . . . . . . . . . . . : Automatic Tunneling Pseudo-Interface
Physical Address. . . . . . . . . : C3-42-E9-41
Dhcp Enabled. . . . . . . . . . . : No
IP Address. . . . . . . . . . . . : fe80::5efe:80.40.20.10%2
Default Gateway . . . . . . . . . :
DNS Servers . . . . . . . . . . . : fec0:0:0:ffff::1%2
fec0:0:0:ffff::2%2
fec0:0:0:ffff::3%2
NetBIOS over Tcpip. . . . . . . . : Disabled

Example Setup Linux Ubuntu using SixXS Tunnelbroker:

Install “aiccu” the SixXS client application:

sudo aptitude install aiccu

Provide Username, Password and Tunnel id (if necessary) during the setup. This will be all set for you during the installation but you can find the config in:

/etc/aiccu

username Charly-SIXXS
password Random
protocol tic
server tic.sixxs.net
tunnel_id T18743
# AICCU Configuration
.
.

Your network should now be configured ready to go:

Again you can test your ipv6 connectivity:

ifconfig -a

sixxs Link encap:UNSPEC HWaddr 00-00-00-00-00-00-00-00-00-00-00-00-00-00-00-00
inet6 addr: 2a01:348:6:157::2/64 Scope:Global
inet6 addr: fe80::48:6:157:2/64 Scope:Link
UP POINTOPOINT RUNNING NOARP MULTICAST MTU:1280 Metric:1
RX packets:269 errors:0 dropped:0 overruns:0 frame:0
TX packets:332 errors:0 dropped:0 overruns:0 carrier:0
collisions:0 txqueuelen:500
RX bytes:155985 (155.9 KB) TX bytes:48812 (48.8 KB)

bernd@isopiece:~$ ping6 ipv6.google.com
PING ipv6.google.com(fx-in-x68.google.com) 56 data bytes
64 bytes from fx-in-x68.google.com: icmp_seq=1 ttl=56 time=95.7 ms
64 bytes from fx-in-x68.google.com: icmp_seq=2 ttl=56 time=96.8 ms
64 bytes from fx-in-x68.google.com: icmp_seq=3 ttl=56 time=96.4 ms
^C

IPv6 Enabled Websites:

http://www.sixxs.net/wiki/IPv6_Enabled_Websites [7]

References:

[1] CIDR: http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/CIDR or http://tinyurl.com/27jw9x
[2] IPv4 exhaustion
[3] IPv6, http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Ipv6 or http://tinyurl.com/9wjqy
[4] Pushing towards IPv6 implementations:

  • http://www.ipv6actnow.org/
  • Hurricane Electric Internet Services
  • http://www.6uk.org.uk/
  • http://gogonet.gogo6.com/
  • LINX IPv6 Workshop 2009 or http://tinyurl.com/6krd78n
  • IPv6 Congress May 2011
  • [5] RFC 3043, IPv6 Tunnel Broker from 2001 : http://www.ietf.org/rfc/rfc3053
    [6] List of tunnel brokers

  • http://www.sixxs.net/tools/aiccu/brokers/ or http://tinyurl.com/cx6pc
  • http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/List_of_IPv6_tunnel_brokers or http://tinyurl.com/288z4h
  • [7] List of IPv6 enabled websites: http://www.sixxs.net/wiki/IPv6_Enabled_Websites or http://tinyurl.com/6lbubxp

    _______________________
    Back to IPv6 Analysis Overview
    .

    ENISA, the European Network and Information Security Agency [1], released their latest EU’s cyber-security agency report which highlights risks, opportunities and recommendations for users of smartphones.

    I am glad that part of my work towards more secure smartphones was mentioned and referenced in this latest update.

    Given the growing importance of smartphones for EU businesses, governments and citizens, we consider it essential to assess their security and privacy implications.

    says Prof. Dr.Udo Helmbrecht, Executive Director of ENISA.

    Smartphones are a goldmine of sensitive and personal information – it’s vital to understand how to maintain our control over this data. We’ve designed our recommendations to plug into a typical security policy

    says Dr. Giles Hogben, co-author of the report.

    The full story

    Reference:

    [1] http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/European_Network_and_Information_Security_Agency or http://tinyurl.com/237ac8h

    I came an article across which describes how to make a phone call from a locked iPhone with iOS 4.1. The web link refers to a Mac Forum where a member explains how to produce the hack:

    When you iPhone is locked with a passcode tap Emergency Call, then enter a non-emergency number such as ###. Next tap the call button and immediately hit the lock button. It should open up the Phone app where you can see all your contacts, call any number, etc.

    I tried it out and it doesn’t work for me on iPhone 3GS (Model MC 132B) with iPhone 4.1 (8B117).(* see update)

    The person who discovered the flaw mentioned that he used a jailbroken phone but some people claimed that they could reproduce it on non jailbroken versions.

    I am now wondering if the flaw depends on specific hardware parameters(* see update ) like processor speed etc. and it currently can only be practised on the more powerfull iPhone 4.

    *Update: Confirmed to be working on iPhone 3GS with iOS 4.0 (8A293) (model MC131B) and if you are quick enough it also works on iPhone 3GS (Model MC 132B) with iPhone 4.1 (8B117).

    Apple says U  p  d  a  t  i  n  g   i s   e  a  s  y. But if you care about security it’s not:

    I strongly recommend following update procedure for iOS4:

    Upgrading your iPhone to the latest version is the normal procedure, however if you read the installation notes during the software update very carefully you will note as mentioned:

    Apple: * Better data protection using the device passcode as an encryption key* (Requires full restore)

    What this means is that unless you go through the Full Restore process you will not gain any data protection improvement promised by Apple.

    iOS4 Update flowchart

    1.) Make sure your PC system is connected to a reliable power source.

    2.) Get iTunes up to date, use the built in update function (Help -> Check for Updates)

    3.) Make a backup of your iPhone data: Connect your iPhone to the computer system and open iTunes. Under ‘Devices’ on the left hand side of the window, right-click on the name you assigned your iPhone and first select ‘Sync’. Once this has been completed follow the same procedure, only this time select ‘Back Up’. Again, once this is finished right click on your iPhone and finally select ‘Transfer Purchases’. Once this has been done your iPhone would be fully backed up onto iTunes locally.

    4.) iPhone iOS4 installation Phase 1:

    Once you have fully backed up your iPhone go onto ‘Summary’ and select ‘Check for Updates’. The option to update to the latest version (4.0) will appear, select the update option and leave the iPhone to run its system update. The iPhone will require restarting.

    Apple iOS 4 update is disabling your security settings: After the update Apple iOS4 leaves you with no passcode protection and “Erase Data” feature disabled even when you have set this up before the update.

    After the iOS4 update make sure under Settings – General – Passcode Lock On:

    - Require Passcode is set to “Immediately”

    - Simple Passcode is set to “OFF” , I recommend at least 6 characters (numbers and or letters with at least one special character included). This is very important as the passcode will be used to generate your encryption key during the full restore procedure .

    - Erase Data is set to “ON”

    5.) iPhone iOS4 installation Phase 2:

    Note: If a Backup is available you should not lose any data at all.

    Once the iPhone has completed its updates, select ‘Restore’ in the ‘Summary’ section of iTunes. If you have already backed up your iPhone with all the latest changes you’ve made to it (New songs, pictures etc) you won’t need to update the iPhone again, just allow it to run its System Restore, this will reset the iPhone back to its factory settings. Once the process is completed the device will restart and the Apple logo will appear on the screen. After the restore, the iPhone displays the “Connect to iTunes” screen. Keep your device connected until the “Connect to iTunes” screen goes away or you see “iPhone is activated.” If iTunes does not have an Internet connection, you cannot complete this step.

    Finally, to restore your device from the previous backup you should be able to see a set of options in iTunes, stating that “An iPhone has been previously synced with this computer” with a list of synced devices, select the backup from which you want to restore your settings and select the continue button to complete the devices restoration.

    Thank You

    Appendix:

    Apple iOS4 Software Update Release Notes:

    iOS 4 Software Update

    This update contains over 100 new features, including the following:

    * Multitasking support for third-party apps*
    - Multitasking user interface to quickly move between
    apps
    - Support for audio apps to play in the background
    - VoIP apps can receive and maintain calls in the
    background or when device is asleep
    - Apps can monitor location and take action while
    running in the background
    - Alerts and messages can be pushed to apps using
    push and local notifications
    - Apps can complete tasks in the background
    * Folders to better organise and access apps
    * Home screen Wallpaper*
    * Mail improvements
    - Unified inbox to view emails from all accounts in one
    place
    - Fast inbox switching to quickly switch between
    different email accounts
    - Threaded messages to view multiple emails from the
    same conversation
    - Attachments can be opened with compatible third-
    party apps
    - Search results can now be filed or deleted
    - Option to select size of photo attachments
    - Messages in the outbox can be edited or deleted
    * Support for iBooks and iBookstore (available from the
    App Store)
    * Photo and Camera improvements
    - 5x digital zoom when taking a photo**
    - Tap to focus during video recording**
    - Ability to sync Faces from iPhoto
    - Geo-tagged photos appear on a map in Photos
    * Ability to create and edit playlists on device
    * Calendar invitations can be sent and accepted wirelessly
    with supported CalDAV servers
    * Support for MobileMe calendar sharing
    * Suggestions and recent searches appear during a web
    search
    * Searchable SMS/MMS messages**
    * Spotlight search can be continued on web and Wikipedia
    * Enhanced location privacy
    - New Location Services icon in the status bar
    - Indication of which apps have requested your location
    in the last 24 hours
    - Location Services can be toggled on or off for
    individual apps
    * Automatic spellcheck
    * Support for Bluetooth keyboards*
    * iPod out to navigate music, podcasts and audiobooks
    through an iPod interface with compatible cars
    * Support for iTunes gifting of apps
    * Wireless notes syncing with IMAP-based mail accounts
    * Persistent Wi-Fi connection to receive push notifications*
    * New setting for turning on/off mobile (cellular) data only**
    * Option to display the character count while composing
    new SMS/MMS**
    * Visual Voicemail messages can be kept locally even if
    they have been deleted from the server**
    * Control to lock portrait orientation*
    * Audio playback controls for iPod and third-party audio
    apps*
    * New languages, dictionaries and keyboards
    * Accessibility enhancements*
    * Bluetooth improvements
    * Better data protection using the device passcode as an
    encryption key* (Requires full restore.)
    * Support for third-party Mobile Device Management
    solutions
    * Enables wireless distribution of enterprise applications
    * Exchange Server 2010 compatibility
    * Support for multiple Exchange ActiveSync accounts
    * Support for Juniper Junos Pulse and Cisco AnyConnect
    SSL VPN apps (available from the App Store)
    * More than 1,500 new developer APIs
    * Bug fixes

    Products compatible with this software update:
    * iPhone 3G
    * iPhone 3GS
    * iPhone 4
    * iPod touch 2nd generation
    * iPod touch 3rd generation (late 2009 models with 32GB
    or 64GB)

    * Requires iPhone 3GS, iPhone 4 or iPod touch 3rd generation.
    ** Requires iPhone 3G, iPhone 3GS or iPhone 4. SMS/MMS messaging and Visual Voicemail require support from your wireless carrier.

    For feature descriptions and complete instructions, see the user guides for iPhone and iPod touch at:
    <http://support.apple.com/manuals/iphone&gt;
    <http://support.apple.com/manuals/ipodtouch&gt;

    For more information about iPhone and iPod touch, go to:
    <http://www.apple.com/uk/iphone&gt;
    <http://www.apple.com/uk/ipodtouch&gt;

    To troubleshoot your iPhone or iPod touch, or to view additional support information go to:
    <http://www.apple.com/uk/support/iphone&gt;
    <http://www.apple.com/uk/support/ipodtouch&gt;

    For information on the security content of this update, please visit this website:
    <http://support.apple.com/kb/HT1222&gt;

    iPhone Advice

    Posted: June 24, 2010 in Apple iPhone

    Be aware of that Apple iOS 4 update is disabling your security settings, see Update 24/06/2010 below

    Do not store any sensitive or confidential data on your iPhone and follow the iOS4 update procedure described.

    Shutdown your iPhone only in the locked state and keep it in locked state when not in use: Intending to shutdown your iPhone from the unlocked state (thats when you see the App icons) press the top right button once. Wait a second and then keep pressing the button again until the slide to power off appears and then shutdown your iPhone.

    Please do also use the “encryption” feature with iTunes for your Backup. Click on your phone device under iTunes and under Summary -> Options Select “Encrypt iPhone Backup” and use a strong password.

    Ideally Do store your Backup only on a PC with an encrypted storage.

    Apple will release iOS 4 which might fix the massive security vulnerability for the iPhone 3G and iPhone 3GS. Please update asap. According to Apple the release date will be on the 21st of June 2010.

    Apple released today (21st June 2010) a newer version of the iPhone software (version 4.0-8A293). If you want to update the phone please make sure to get iTunes also updated to its latest version 9.2.0.61 before attempting the software update.

    After the first tests done, please bear in mind that I need further investigations followed to provide a more reliable conclusion. So far it turns out that the time-of-check-to-time-of-use (TOCTTOU) bug (race condition) seems to be patched in iOS4. The flaw is for me no longer reproducible in the way described.

    However, I would not call the issue as cleared off for the time being:

    Apple security release notes can be found here and Apple is not mentioning anything about the security improvements towards better authentication and/or encryption.

    If you read the installation notes during the software update very carefully you will note:

    “* Better data protection using the device passcode as an encryption key* (Requires full restore)”

    What this means is that unless you go through the Full restore process you will not gain any data protection improvement promised by Apple.

    Update 22/06/2010:

    Apple hasn’t pointed this out so far but I would strongly recommend following update procedure for iOS4:

    Upgrading your iPhone to the latest version is the normal procedure, however if you read the installation notes during the software update very carefully you will note as mentioned:

    Apple: * Better data protection using the device passcode as an encryption key* (Requires full restore)

    What this means is that unless you go through the Full Restore process you will not gain any data protection improvement promised by Apple.

    1.) Make sure your PC system is connected to a reliable power source.

    2.) Get iTunes up to date, use the built in update function (Help -> Check for Updates)

    3.) Make a backup of your iPhone data: Connect your iPhone to the computer system and open iTunes. Under ‘Devices’ on the left hand side of the window, right-click on the name you assigned your iPhone and first select ‘Sync’. Once this has been completed follow the same procedure, only this time select ‘Back Up’. Again, once this is finished right click on your iPhone and finally select ‘Transfer Purchases’. Once this has been done your iPhone would be fully backed up onto iTunes locally.

    4.) iPhone iOS4 installation Phase 1:

    Once you have fully backed up your iPhone go onto ‘Summary’ and select ‘Check for Updates’. The option to update to the latest version (4.0) will appear, select the update option and leave the iPhone to run its system update. The iPhone will require restarting.

    Added 24/06/2010

    Apple iOS 4 update is disabling your security settings: After the update Apple iOS4 leaves you with no passcode protection and “Erase Data” feature disabled even when you have set this up before the update.

    After the iOS4 update make sure under Settings – General – Passcode Lock On:

    - Require Passcode is set to “Immediately”

    - Simple Passcode is set to “OFF” , I recommend at least 6 characters (numbers and or letters with at least one special character included). This is very important as the passcode will be used to generate your encryption key during the full restore procedure .

    - Erase Data is set to “ON”

    5.) iPhone iOS4 installation Phase 2:

    Note: If a Backup is available you should not lose any data at all.

    Once the iPhone has completed its updates, select ‘Restore’ in the ‘Summary’ section of iTunes. If you have already backed up your iPhone with all the latest changes you’ve made to it (New songs, pictures etc) you won’t need to update the iPhone again, just allow it to run its System Restore, this will reset the iPhone back to its factory settings. Once the process is completed the device will restart and the Apple logo will appear on the screen. After the restore, the iPhone displays the “Connect to iTunes” screen. Keep your device connected until the “Connect to iTunes” screen goes away or you see “iPhone is activated.” If iTunes does not have an Internet connection, you cannot complete this step.

    Finally, to restore your device from the previous backup you should be able to see a set of options in iTunes, stating that “An iPhone has been previously synced with this computer” with a list of synced devices, select the backup from which you want to restore your settings and select the continue button to complete the devices restoration.

    Update 24/06/2010:

    Apple iOS 4 update is disabling your security settings: After the update Apple iOS4 leaves you with no passcode protection and “Erase Data” feature disabled even when you have set this up before the update.

    After the iOS4 update make sure under Settings – General – Passcode Lock On:

    - Require Passcode is set to “Immediately”

    - Simple Passcode is set to “OFF” , I recommend at least 6 characters (numbers and or letters with at least one special character included). This is very important as the passcode will be used to generate your encryption key during the full restore procedure .

    - Erase Data is set to “ON”

    If you had to change from Simple Passcode “ON” to a more complex passcode follow again the “iPhone iOS4 installation Phase 2″ described above. This will generate a new stronger encryption key.

    To make it easier, I summarized the iOS4 iPhone update.

    Thank You.